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Broccoli, also known as broccoli (scientific name: brassica oleracea l. var.botrytis l.), is a vegetable. It is an annual plant of Brassica in Cruciferae, and is a variety of cabbage together with western blue flower (broccoli) and cabbage. Originated from the eastern Mediterranean coast, it was introduced into China in the early 19th century during the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty.
Also known as cauliflower, coconut cauliflower, cabbage flower, cauliflower, cabbage. There are two kinds, white and green. The green is called west blue flower and broccoli. The nutrition and function of glistening and greenish-white vegetables are basically the same. The content of carotene in greenish-white vegetables is higher than that in glistening. Ranked fourth among the top ten healthy foods recommended by Time magazine.
Broccoli, also known as broccoli, broccoli, broccoli with tender stems, kale with Italian mustard and broccoli with stems, is a variety of Brassica cabbage in Cruciferae and a biennial herb. Originated from the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas, China has a small amount of cultivation in recent years, mainly for western food use. Broccoli is located between cabbage and cauliflower. The top of the main stem forms green or purple large flower balls. The small flower buds on the surface are obvious and loose, but not densely packed into balls. The tender stems of the flower buds are collected for eating. The broccoli is rich in nutrition and contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins and carotene. The nutritional components rank first among similar vegetables and are known as " vegetable crown".
French and American scientists recently discovered that " broccoli" is not only rich in vitamins and minerals,
It may even have the magical effect of killing helicobacter pylori, which causes gastric cancer. Interestingly, it is the substance that brings " unique taste" to this green vegetable that has such wonderful functions.
Broccoli is basically similar to cauliflower in morphology and growth habit, but it has strong growth vigor and strong heat resistance and cold resistance. The plant is tall and tall. After growing more than 20 leaves, it draws out its flower stems. The top of the plant has dense clusters of globular cluster buds, and the buds are turquoise. Therefore, it is also called broccoli. The leaf color is blue-green and gradually turns to dark blue-green with more wax powder. The petiole is long and narrow. There are two types of leaf shape: broad leaf and long leaf.
Broccoli is a vegetable in autumn and winter. It enjoys a warm and humid climate, with wide adaptability and easy cultivation. The plant is strong and has stronger heat resistance and cold resistance than cauliflower. At a certain seedling age, flower bud division starts at low temperature. The suitable temperature for seed germination is 20-30 ℃ and the suitable temperature for growth and development is 15-18 ℃. A higher temperature is required in the early growth stage, with an appropriate temperature of 18-25 ℃, and a lower temperature is required in the later stage (flower ball formation stage), with an appropriate temperature of 15-18 ℃. If the temperature is too high in the later growth stage (22-25 ℃), flower ball formation is hindered, loose quality of flower balls is poor, and yield is low. In the seedling stage, the heat resistance and cold resistance are strong, the resistance becomes weak in the middle and later stages of growth, and the growth is slow below 5 ℃. Broccoli is a low-temperature long-day plant, which likes light and lacks sufficient illumination.
The plant grows excessively and the color of the flower bulbs turns yellow, which affects the quality. Therefore, when broccoli is cultivated, the illumination should be sufficient. The flower bulbs must see sunlight and cannot be covered with leaves. Broccoli prefers humid environment and needs more water, especially more water in the bulb formation period after flower bud differentiation, which is lack of water to inhibit bulb formation and reduce yield and quality. Broccoli has strict requirements on soil nutrients, and loam or clay loam with deep, fertile and well-drained soil layer is suitable, and PH 6.0 is the best for growth.
Broccoli contains not only high but also comprehensive nutritional ingredients, mainly including protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals, vitamin C and carotene. According to analysis, every 100g of fresh broccoli ball contains 3.5g-4.5g of protein, which is 3 times as much as cauliflower and 4 times as much as tomato. In addition, broccoli has more comprehensive mineral components than other vegetables, with rich contents of calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc and manganese, which are much higher than those of cabbage flowers belonging to cruciferae. Broccoli may have the most remarkable anti-cancer effect, cauliflower contains more vitamin C, which is higher than Chinese cabbage, tomato and celery, especially in preventing and treating gastric cancer and breast cancer. Studies have shown that the level of serum selenium in patients with gastric cancer is significantly reduced, and the concentration of vitamin C in gastric juice is significantly lower than that of normal people. cauliflower can not only supplement a certain amount of selenium and vitamin C to people, but also supply abundant carotene, which plays a role in preventing the formation of precancerous lesion cells and inhibiting the growth of cancer. According to research by American nutritionists, there are many indole derivatives in cauliflower, which can reduce estrogen level in human body and prevent breast cancer. In addition, studies have shown that an enzyme extracted from cauliflower can prevent cancer, and this substance is called raphanin, which has the effect of improving the activity of detoxifying enzyme, a carcinogen.
Besides anti-cancer, broccoli also contains abundant ascorbic acid, which can enhance the detoxification ability of the liver and improve the immunity of the body. However, a certain amount of flavonoids can regulate and prevent hypertension and heart disease. At the same time, broccoli is a high-fiber vegetable, which can effectively reduce the absorption of glucose by intestines and stomach, thereby reducing blood sugar and effectively controlling the condition of diabetes.
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