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Fucoidan, also known as fucoidan and fucoidan sulfate, is a water-soluble polysaccharide containing L- fucose as the main component, a variety of monosaccharide residues and sulfate groups. It exists in all brown algae and its structure is very complex. On the one hand, fucoidan from different brown algae has different chemical compositions. In addition to the main components fucose and sulfate, it also contains other monosaccharide (mannose galactose glucose, etc.) and uronic acid, and some also have acetyl and protein. On the other hand, the structure of fucoidan in different brown algae is also different, and fucoidan obtained by different extraction methods may also have different structures.
Studies have shown that fucoidan has a wide range of physiological and biochemical activities, including antiviral, anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects, as well as anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-fatigue, antioxidant, blood lipid lowering, immune regulation and other effects. Fucoidan can be developed into anti-aging health food adjuvants or functional factors for application in food and health care products and other fields. Previous studies have shown that fucoidan can prevent helicobacter pylori infection and reduce the risk of gastric cancer. Fucoidan mainly resists ulcer formation by enhancing the immune function of gastric mucosa, and plays a significant role in promoting gastric mucosa cell renewal, improving gastric mucosa blood circulation and antioxidation.
1. Anticoagulant effect
Studies have shown that fucoidan extracted from different marine brown algae has different degrees of anticoagulant activity, such as Laminariasaccharina, Laminaria digitata, Fucus distichus and Fucus serratus fucoidan show high anticoagulant activity, Fucus Evans, The anticoagulant activity of Fucus spiralis, Ascophyllumnodo- sum and Fucus vesiculosus is halved compared with the former, while Cladosiphonokamuranus and Analipus japonicas have almost no anticoagulant activity. Its anticoagulant activity is related to the position content of sulfate and the molecular weight of fucoidan.
2. Antithrombotic Effect
In vivo animal experimental models, fucoidan has inhibitory effects on venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis. Low molecular weight fucoidan has better anti-arterial thrombosis ability than heparin, and can induce adhesion protein to produce laminin and reduce platelet deposition. And has plasminogen activity and inhibits anti-plasmin activity protein; At the same time, it also has the function of inhibiting thromboxane, reducing the adhesion between leukocytes and platelets, thus inhibiting the formation of microthrombus.
3. Antiviral effect
Fucoidan may prevent HSV infection by directly inhibiting virus replication and enhancing innate and acquired immune defense functions. It can also effectively inhibit the transmission of Dengue Fever 2 virus (DEN2), and shows that fucoidan specifically binds to DEN2 particles and interacts with its packaging glycoprotein. Fucoidan has no direct inactivation effect on virus bodies. Its antiviral mechanism is to inhibit the formation of virus syncytial cells by inhibiting the adsorption of virus.
4. Anti-tumor effect
It is concluded that the mechanism of fucoidan inhibiting tumor is through: 1) blocking heparin binding region and cell binding region of fibronectin; 2) adjusting the recombination of integrin 5 subunit; 3) down-regulate the expression of adhesion spot protein to inhibit the adhesion between MDA-MB-231 cells and fibronectin.
Fucoidan has significant antioxidant activity. It is a natural antioxidant and can effectively prevent diseases caused by free radicals. The higher the sulfate content, the stronger the antioxidant ability. However, the antioxidant activity is not only related to the molecular weight of its sulfate content, but also related to its uronic acid fucose content.
6. Immune activity
Fucoidan has a variety of immune activities, including anti-complement activity, anti-inflammatory reaction and immunoregulation.
Fucoidan can enhance the activity of alkaline phosphatase and increase the content of osteocalcin, thus promoting the formation of differentiated osteoblast protein of osteoblasts and promoting the remodeling and mineralization of bone formation. Promoting the secretion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by adipocytes and promoting the secretion of apolipoprotein C-II, a cofactor of LPL; But also inhibit fat formation; Low molecular weight fucoidan can not only promote endothelial cell angiogenesis.
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