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" Fucoidan" has many Chinese names. In research papers, academic reports and news materials, it is also called " fucoidan", " fucoidan sulfate", " fucoidan", " fucoidan sulfate" and so on. These names actually refer to a substance, and the English name is " Fucoidan".
In 1913, Swedish scientist Professor Kylin discovered slimy ingredients in kelp at Uppsala University. At that time, different scholars gave different names to such functional ingredients, including fucoidin, fucan, etc. At present, according to the international IUPAC nomenclature, it is officially named Fucoidan.
Fucoidan mainly exists in the surface mucus of brown algae (e.g. Nemacystus, Undaria pinnatifida spore leaf and Laminaria japonica), and generally exists in the cell wall matrix of brown algae in liquid form. It seeps from the inside of brown algae to the surface of brown algae and is one of the unique physiological active substances of brown algae. The content of fucoidan in brown algae is very small, about 0.1% in fresh kelp and about 1% in dry kelp.
Fucoidan is a very valuable seaweed active substance. Studies have found that the content of fucoidan in kelp is closely related to the position of kelp. The content of fucoidan in kelp leaves is higher than that in the neck. The higher the content of fucoidan is, the higher the content of fucoidan is at the edge of the leaves. In addition, the growth season and origin of kelp also have significant effects on the content and structure of fucoidan, with higher content from July to December and lower content from March to April. The sulfate group of seaweed polysaccharide from Qingdao and Fujian in China is mainly located at the C-4 position, while the sulfate group of seaweed polysaccharide from Dalian is mainly located at the C-2 and C-3 positions.
Effect of Fucoidan
Brown algae generally grow in the intertidal zone of bedrock coast, and their living environment is relatively harsh. The rising and falling tide keeps brown algae in an environment surrounded by seawater and exposed to sunlight. When the tide ebbs, brown algae secretes fucoidan from cells in order to protect the algae body, which has a strong water locking and moisturizing effect, ensures a moist environment on the surface of the algae body, resists harsh external environment and protects the algae body.
Japan currently has the longest life expectancy in the world, with an average life expectancy of 83.4 years. Meanwhile, the incidence rate of chronic diseases in Japan is also one of the lowest in the world. According to nutritionists' analysis, one of the most important reasons for the health of Japanese people may be related to their habit of eating seaweed food, which is 5.5g per person per day. Kelp is called " longevity dish" in Japan. People in Japan's Okinawa and other regions often eat kelp, seaweed and other marine products. Kelp consumption is the highest in Japan, and its intake is about double that of other counties. Okinawa has also become a famous longevity county. Fucoidan is an active substance with a variety of physiological effects in brown algae such as kelp. Although it was discovered by Professor Kylin in 1913, it was not until 1996 that the report " Fucoidan Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis" was published at the 55th Japan Cancer Society Congress that it attracted widespread attention in academia and triggered a research upsurge.
At present, the medical profession is carrying out various biological functions research on fucoidan, and has published thousands of papers in international medical journals. It has been proved that fucoidan has various biological functions, such as anti-tumor, gastrointestinal tract improvement, oxidation resistance, immunity enhancement, antithrombotic, blood pressure reduction, antivirus, etc.
Anti-tumor Effect of Fucoidan
The research of fucoidan's anti-tumor effect is currently the most concerned direction in academia, and has achieved a large number of research results. The antitumor effects of fucoidan mainly include:
1. Regulation of tumor cell cycle
In 2015, Professor Lee Sang Hun of Soonchunhyang University in South Korea and others found that fucoidan inhibited the expression of Cyclin and cyclin kinase CDK in tumor cells by regulating the growth cycle of human colon cancer cells, affecting the normal mitosis of tumor cells, causing tumor cells to stagnate in the prophase of mitosis and inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells. （Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015, 12, 3446.）
2. Inducing apoptosis of tumor cells
In 2012, a study published by the Quan Li research team of Qingdao university found that fucoidan can activate ——Bax, the apoptosis signal of tumor cells, causing DNA damage and chromosome aggregation of breast cancer cells, inducing spontaneous apoptosis of tumor cells, and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells in mice. （Plos One, 2012, 7, e43483.）
3. inhibiting tumor cell metastasis
In 2015, researchers such as Chang-Jer Wu of National Taiwan Ocean University released research showing that fucoidan can increase the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), thus inhibiting the metastasis of tumor cells in vivo. （Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1882.）
4.inhibiting tumor angiogenesis
In 2015, the Tz-Chong Chou research team of Taiwan Medical Center found that fucoidan can reduce the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inhibit the neogenesis of tumor vessels, cut off the nutritional supply of tumor bodies, starve tumors, and block the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells to the greatest extent. （Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 4436.）
5.activate the body's immune system
In 2006, professor Takahisa Nakano of Kitasato university university in Japan found that fucoidan can enhance the body's immunity and specifically kill cancer cells by using the patient's own immune system. After entering the intestinal tract, fucoidan can be recognized by immune cells to generate signals for activating the immune system and activate NK cells, B cells and T cells, thereby generating antibodies binding to cancer cells and T cells killing cancer cells, specifically killing cancer cells and inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. （Planta Medica , 2006 , 72, 1415.）
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