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Keywords:Carnosic Acid,Central Nervous
Central nervous system effect
Tsai et al. by immunoblot analysis that the anti-apoptotic B lymphocyte (Bcl-2) content was decreased in the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 treated with carnosic acid, and the dose of carnosic acid was dosed. The dependent method reduces the cell survival rate and achieves the effect of treating diseases and protecting nerves. It is proved by immunoblot analysis that anti-apoptotic B lymphocytes are detected in the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 treated with carnosic acid which the content of cell tumor (Bcl-2) decreased, and the acidity of carnosic acid decreased the cell survival rate in a dose-dependent manner to achieve the effect of treating diseases and protecting nerves. Lin et al believed that carnosic acid inhibited the growth of IMR-32 cells and related to the stagnation of G0／G1 period, the mechanism may be through the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 pathway, induce p21 protein and reduce the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) protein to promote cell arrest in G0/G1 phase, in order to achieve tumor suppression and it is believed that carnosic acid can be used as a drug for the treatment of human neuroblastoma in the future. Kayashima et al. used indirect simulated in vivo therapy of mouse aorta and found that the concentration of carnosic acid was higher than 10 uM, and it had an anti-microvascular branching effect. When human intradermal umbilical vascular cells were used to form intratumoral reconstituted basement membrane, carnosic acid also showed resistance to the effect of angiogenesis; carnosic acid can effectively inhibit the disorder caused by angiogenesis, and its anti-angiogenic effect can be used to protect nerves. Tamaki et al. found the nature of the neuroprotective effect of carnosic acid induced by biphasic enzymes: S-alkylation → activation of Keapl/Nrt2 pathway → activation of transcription → induction of biphasic enzymes → activation of glutathione (GSH) Metabolically protect cortical neurons → protect nerves. Chen and Lin et al believe that carnosic acid causes attenuation of hexahydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis associated with Nrt2-driven synthesis of GSH, which inhibits JNK and p38 pathways by inhibiting signal transduction pathways and 6 -OHDA-induced apoptosis, The research also suggests that carnosic acid may be a neuroprotective agent in Parkinson's disease.
Carnosic acid has many other biological activities discovered and studied. For example, carnosic acid can prevent lipid accumulation in liver cells, protect the stomach and protect the liver, treat fatty liver, and reduce non-heme iron absorb, correct and stop metabolic acidosis, prevent protein damage, treat insulin resistance, etc. Carnosic acid can also treat sore throat, indigestion, diabetes and so on. The sage containing carnosic acid has obvious effects on convulsion, dilation of peripheral blood vessels and inhibition of sweating.
As an important rosemary extract, carnosic acid has broad application prospects. In summary, the biological activities of carnosic acid mainly include anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, and effects on the central nervous system. Deeply and comprehensively understand and master the physiological and pharmacological activities and effects of carnosic acid, help to provide timely and effective preventive and therapeutic measures for human diseases, and broaden the efficient utilization route of carnosic acid resource.
At present, there are few studies on the biological activity of carnosic acid, and the research on clinical and product safety is relatively weak. Therefore, we need to accelerate the further research and exploration of its biological activity, so that it can be applied to the treatment of human diseases as soon as possible. To promote its research, we can conduct in-depth research from the following aspects: (1) increase the planting area, conduct good quality screening and cultivation, and provide sufficient raw material sources for experimental research; (2) carnosic acid exists in various plants. In addition, the extraction, separation and purification are difficult, so the purification method needs to be improved; (3) Although the research on carnosic acid has been widely concerned at home and abroad, the most research is its antioxidant effect, and the comprehensive research also It has not received the attention it deserves, but its good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities may be developed into effective clinical therapeutic drugs, which have potential medicinal development value. It is urgent to further study the neglected drug use of carnosic acid. To confirm the applicability and curative effect, and to develop the related new drugs with carnosic acid as a natural drug source; (4) further strengthen the multidisciplinary research and correlation analysis on the biological activity, mechanism of action, structure-activity relationship of carnosic acid, and promote it effectively utilizes and discovers new drug lead compounds.
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