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Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey) is a perennial herbaceous plant. it likes shade, leaves have no stomata and palisade tissue, and cannot retain water. leaves will burn if the temperature is higher than 32 degrees, with a canopy density of 0.7-0.8. Usually it takes 3 years to blossom, 5-6 years to bear fruit, flowering period may-June, fruit period June-September.
Growing in the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest or deciduous broad-leaved forest with Korean pine as the main species and hundreds of meters above sea level between 33 degrees and 48 degrees north latitude, it is found in northeast China, north Korea, south Korea, Japan and eastern Russia. Ginseng is also known as the king of yellow ginseng, goblin, sacred grass and all kinds of grass, and is one of the three treasures in northeast China.
Effect of Folding on Central Nervous System
Ginseng can regulate the balance between excitation and inhibition of the central nervous system. Through the research on the effect of ginseng on animal EEG activity, the results show that ginseng has an effect on both excitation and inhibition of two kinds of nerve processes, but mainly strengthens the excitation process of cerebral cortex. Since it acts on the inhibition process at the same time, the inhibition tends to be concentrated, and the differentiation is accelerated and more complete. Ginseng can regulate nerve function and restore nervous process caused by nervous disorder. Ginsenoside Rb has central sedative effect, while Rb1, Rb2 and Rc mixed saponins have stabilizing effect. Rg has central excitatory effect. The effects of ginsenoside on the central nervous system are small dose excitation and large dose inhibition. The intraperitoneal injection of 5 g/kg ginseng water extract can obviously reduce the spontaneous activity of mice. Ginseng water immersion can also resist convulsion caused by cocaine, strychnine and pentylenetetrazole, and can reduce the death rate of convulsion. Some reports point out that ginseng crude neutral saponin not only has sedative and tranquilizing effects, but also has analgesic, muscle relaxant and cooling effects.
Ginseng can prevent and treat acute and chronic altitude diseases caused by hypoxia.
Under the condition of altitude hypoxia of 7000m, the study on the changes of cerebral cortex ultrastructure of rats under acute hypoxia shows that it can obviously protect the ultrastructure of cerebral cortex neurons from anoxia damage. It has also been observed in experiments that ginsenoside does obviously inhibit the utilization of endogenous glycogen.
At the same time, it can enhance tissue respiration, promote anaerobic glycolysis, improve productivity under anoxic conditions, and reduce oxygen consumption of the body, so it can protect neurons and cardiovascular system and improve tolerance to anoxia. Clinically verified that ginsenoside is effective in preventing and treating acute and chronic altitude diseases.
Ginseng can improve brain oxygen uptake
Ginseng also has obvious effects on cerebral blood flow and cerebral energy metabolism. Ginseng preparation can increase glucose uptake in rabbit brain, reduce lactic acid, pyruvic acid and lactic acid/pyruvic acid ratio, and change glucose utilization from anaerobic metabolism to aerobic metabolism. Ginseng can also increase free inorganic phosphorus in cerebral cortex by 25%. Ginseng fruit saponin can improve brain oxygen uptake. Ginsenosides and ginsenosides have protective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In short, ginseng can enable animal brains to make more rational use of the energy substance glucose, oxidize production capacity, and synthesize more ATP for learning and memory activities.
Ginseng plateau mixture has the ability to resist hypoxia at high altitude.
The acute decompression hypoxia experiment proves that ginseng plateau mixture can obviously reduce the mortality rate of mice and improve the ability of resisting acute hypoxia.
The mechanism of anti-hypoxia of ginseng plateau mixture needs further research, which may be related to its effects of improving blood circulation of heart, brain, lung, etc., improving myocardial metabolism, anti-thrombosis, thrombolysis, improving blood rheology and adapting to the original condition.
The ginseng plateau mixture needs to be put into clinical practice to test its anti-hypoxia effect at high altitude.
Anti-fatigue Effect of Ginseng
Human experiments have proved that the mechanism of anti-fatigue effect of ginseng may be related to raising blood lipid and promoting protein and RNA synthesis. Studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 has significant antifatigue effect, while neutral saponins (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, etc.) have no antifatigue effect. The lipophilic components left after separation of ginsenoside can also increase the spontaneous movement of mice and show anti-fatigue effect. Ginseng can make the utilization of glycogen and high-energy phosphorylation more economical, prevent the accumulation of lactic acid and pyruvic acid, and make its metabolism more complete. Ginseng can also prevent the depletion of glycogen in tissues and cholesterol in adrenal glands caused by long-term exercise in rats.
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