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Keywords: Tongkat Ali, Anticancer, Antimalarial, Improve sexual
1.1 Anticancer activity
The anti-cancer effect of Tongkat Ali was first reported in 1990. Morita et al. found that longi1actone、 13, 21-dihydroeurycomanone and 14,15-dihydroxyklaineanone purified from Tongkat Ali root treat KB and P-388 cancer cell lines have Cytotoxic activity, which IC50 are 3.40, 0.33, 0.38 ug/mL (KB) and 1.30, 1.20, 0.29 ug/mL (P-388) respectively. Kardono et al. obtained 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one、9-methoxy-canthin-6-one N-oxide、9-hydmxycanthin-6-one、9-hydroxycan-thin-6-one N-oxide、eurycomanone separate from Tongkat Ali root and these five compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against eight different human cancer cell lines. As a result, all of the above five compounds showed moderate or higher cytotoxic activity except for KB cancer cells. Morita was again reported in 1993 to report that the separate compounds: 6-dehydroxylongilactone, 7α-hydroxyeurycomalactone, 12-acetyl-13, 21-dihydroeurycomanone have strong cytotoxic activity to P-388 cancer cell lines, and their IC50 respectively is 0.66. , 0.1l, 0.94 ug/mL; and the hydrolysate 11-deacetyleurytene of compound 14-Deacetyleurylen and eu-rylene has strong cytotoxic activity against KB cancer cell lines, and its IC50 uranium respectively is 0.52 and 30 ug/mL. Kuo et al extracted 65 compounds from Tongkat Ali root and found that in which 7 of them have significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 tumor cells and 8 have strong cytotoxic activity against lung cancer A549 tumor cells. Its IC50 uranium is less than 2.5ug/mL. Tee et al. sought to find the mechanism of action of such active compounds, and found that the crude extract of Tongkat Ali can induce cell apoptosis through the action of apoptosis protease, thereby inhibiting the growth of MCF-5 tumor cells. Also, some scholars have reported that the rich enryeomeflofle extracts from Tongkat Ali root can induce hepatoma cell HepG2 apoptosis through the P53 pathway. Pooi-Fong et al. found that eurycomanone can achieve anticancer effects by inhibiting the expression of three proteins, such as inhibin protein, annexin and endoplasmic reticulum protein 28 in lung cancer cells.
1.2 Anti-malaria effect
Chan et al. found that the chloroform fraction and n-butanol fraction of the crude methanol extract of Tongkat Ali root had antimalarial activity with IC50 between 0.05 and 0.50 ug/mL; eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, eurycomanol pure compound obtained by separate, It has similar or stronger Plasmodium inhibitory activity than chloroquine (IC50=20.21ug/mL), and their IC50 are 0.21, 0.11, 0.28 ug/mL, It is reported that eurycomanone and pasakbumin B have stronger Plasmodium inhibitory activity than chloroquine. The mechanism of action is that the quassinoids compounds in the extract of Tongkat Ali root can inhibit the synthesis of proteins in Plasmodium, thus achieving antimalarial effects.
1.3 Improve sexual function
After Ang et al. fed the crude extract of Tongkat Ali root to adult male rats with sexual experience, the sexual function indexes of male rats were improved. After the adult male rats without sexual experience were fed the crude extract, the emergence of sexual desire shows that it has the effect of inducing sexual desire and improving sexual desire. Lin et al. found that the crude ethanol extract of Tongkat Ali root reduced the release of basal testosterone, but caused human chorionic gonadotropin to induce an increase in testosterone secretion in mouse testis cells. Wahab et al. administered estrogen-treated rats for 14 days of continuous administration of Tongkat Ali extract, which was also found to promote sperm production and increase serum testosterone levels. Solomon et al. administered the water extract of Tongkat Ali root to rats for 14 days. In addition to observing the number of sperm and testosterone concentration, the weights of before and after taking medicine for the testes, epididymis, prostate, gastrocnemius, omentum and other organs were compared. The sperm performance, rate, activity, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated. The results showed that compared with the control, Tongkat Ali water extract had no effect on the weight of each organ, and the intimal fat was reduced. 31.9%, testosterone concentration increased by 30.2%, gastrocnemius weight increased, but not significant, MMP increased significantly by 25.1%, sperm number, kinetic energy, activity increased significantly. Du Wenwei et al used castration surgery to prepare the yang deficiency model and observed the effect of drugs on ovariectomized rats. It was found that Tongkat Ali can significantly shorten the penile erection latency of ovariectomized rats, increase the weight of sexual organs, and make the penis and levator of castrated rats Muscle, semen sac and prostate organ index increased, indicating that Tongkat Ali has a certain role in kidney and impotence.
Qiao Tongling stablished a rat model of exercise-induced low blood testosterone by letting rats perform 6-week exhaustive swimming training, and then taking Tongkat Ali and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) to observe the effect of testosterone on maca and Tongkat Ali. The results showed that taking maca and Tongkat Ali can significantly enhance the endurance exercise ability of rats and prolong the time of weight-bearing swimming exhaustion, which can effectively reduce the decrease of blood testosterone levels and improve exercise in rats after long-term exhaustive swimming training. And the effect of promoting testosterone of Tongkat Ali is better than that of maca. Low et al. found that the mechanism by which Tongkat Ali's extract rich in lignin promotes sperm production is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary gland axis. Subsequently, Low et al. extracted the active ingredient eurycomanone from Tongkat Ari root and explored its testosterone activity. The results showed that eurycomanone can promote the production of testosterone steroid by inhibiting the conversion of aromatase in testicular interstitial cells to estradiol. It provides a new botanical drug for the treatment of male infertility caused by congenital testosterone deficiency interstitial cells to estradiol. It provides a new botanical drug for the treatment of male infertility caused by congenital testosterone deficiency.
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