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    The Wonderful Peptides (1): What is the glutathione?

    Date:2021-01-18    Views:351

    What is the glutathione?

    Brief introduction of glutathione

    Glutathione(r-glutamyl cysteingl +glycine,GSH) is a tripeptide containing γ-amide bond and sulfhydryl group. It is composed of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It exists in almost every cell of the body.

    Glutathione can help maintain the normal immune system function, and has an antioxidant effect, integrated detoxification effect. The sulfhydryl group on cysteine is its active group (so it is often abbreviated as G-SH), which is easy to combine with certain drugs, toxins, etc., so that it has an integrated detoxification effect. Glutathione can not only be used in medicines, but also as a base material for functional foods. It is widely used in functional foods such as delaying aging, enhancing immunity, and anti-tumor.

    Glutathione has two forms: reduced (G-SH) and oxidized (G-S-S-G). Under physiological conditions, reduced glutathione accounts for the majority. Glutathione reductase can catalyze the interconversion between the two types, and the coenzyme of this enzyme can also provide NADPH for pentose phosphate bypass metabolism.

    l-glutathione-c10h17n3o6s-pic

    Content distribution of glutathione

    Content distribution of glutathione Glutathione is widely present in animals and plants, and plays an important role in organisms. The content in baker's yeast, wheat germ and animal liver is very high, reaching 100 ~ 1000 mg/100g, in human blood containing 26 ~ 34 mg/100g, chicken blood containing 58 ~ 73 mg/100g, pig blood containing 10 ~ 15 mg/100g, the content is also higher in tomatoes, pineapple, cucumber (12 ~ 33 mg/100g), but lower in sweet potatoes, mung bean sprouts, onions, mushrooms (0.06 ~ 0.7 mg/100g)

    Physiological function of Reduced Glutathione

    Detoxification: Combine with poisons or drugs to eliminate their toxic effects;
    Participate in redox reaction: as an important reducing agent, participate in a variety of redox reactions in the body;
    Protect the activity of sulfhydrylase: keep the active group of sulfhydrylase—SH in a reduced state;
    Maintain the stability of the red blood cell membrane structure: eliminate the damaging effect of oxidants on the red blood cell membrane structure
    Physiological function of Reduced Glutathione

    Mechanism of L-glutathion

    Mechanism of L-glutathion
    As an important regulatory metabolite in cells, GSH is not only the prosthetic group of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, but also the coenzyme of glyoxalase and triose dehydrogenase. It participates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and sugar metabolism in the body. It can activate a variety of enzymes, such as sulfhydryl (SH) enzyme-coenzyme, etc., thereby promoting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. The GSH molecule is characterized by its active sulfhydryl group (-SH), which is the most important functional group. It can participate in a variety of important biochemical reactions in the body, protect important enzyme protein sulfhydryl groups in the body from oxidation and inactivation, and ensure energy metabolism and cell utilization. At the same time, it combines with free radicals in the body through sulfhydryl groups, which can directly reduce free radicals to acidic substances, thereby accelerating the excretion of free radicals and resisting the damage of free radicals to important organs. Haddad et al. found that GSH is involved in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine transcription and the regulation of the I-KB/NF-KB signaling pathway. Armstrong et al. found that the decrease of GSH content is a potential early activation signal for apoptosis, and the subsequent generation of oxygen free radicals promotes cell apoptosis

    Main applications of glutathione

    Clinical drugs


    Glutathione drugs are widely used in clinics. In addition to using its sulfhydryl group to chelate heavy metals, fluoride, mustard gas and other toxins poisoning, it is also used in hepatitis, hemolytic diseases, keratitis, cataracts, and retinal diseases as treatment or Adjuvant therapy drugs. In recent years, Western scientists, especially Japanese scholars, have discovered that glutathione has the function of suppressing HIV.
    The latest research also shows that GSH can correct the imbalance of acetylcholine and cholinesterase, play an anti-allergic effect, can also prevent skin aging and pigmentation, reduce the formation of melanin, improve the skin's antioxidant capacity and make the skin shiny, and , GSH also plays a very good role in treating corneal diseases and improving sexual function

    Clinical drugs of glutathione

    Anti-oxidize effect

    As an important antioxidant in the body, glutathione can remove free radicals in the body; because GSH itself is easily oxidized by certain substances, it can protect the sulfhydryl groups in many proteins and enzymes in the body from being harmful Substances are oxidized to ensure the normal functioning of molecular physiological functions such as proteins and enzymes; there is a lot of glutathione in human red blood cells, which is of great significance for protecting the sulfhydryl group of the protein on the red blood cell membrane in a reduced state and preventing hemolysis

    Anti-oxidize effect of glutathione

    Food additives

    Adding glutathione to food can play an unexpected role:
    1. Adding to noodle products can play a reducing role. It not only shortens the time for making bread to one-half or one-third of the original, but also greatly improves working conditions, and it also plays a role in strengthening food nutrition and other functions.
    2. Add it to yogurt and baby food, equivalent to vitamin C, which can act as a stabilizer.
    3. Mix it into the fish cake to prevent the color from deepening.
    4. Add to meat products and cheese and other foods to enhance the flavor.


    Food additives of glutathione

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